The team’s model successfully predicted outbreak patterns during the major dengue outbreak of 2013, forecasting a peak count of 863 dengue cases in the 26th week of 2013 (compared to the actual peak of 842 dengue cases, during the 25th week of 2013.) This prediction enabled better planning of resource and medical care allocation, including an early launch of a government-led public health education campaign two months earlier than scheduled to more effectively preempt the outbreak. Owing to its tropical climate, Singapore is a highly-endemic area for dengue, and experiences 20-330 cases per 100,000 people each year, depending on the severity of outbreaks, with higher rates of transmission in the September to February rainy season. Additionally, Singapore prides itself on its multipayer financial system; however, patients pay more than 60% of healthcare costs out-of-pocket. The use of radio waves to detect distant or unseen metallic objects was first demonstrated by German scientist Christian Hulsmeyer in 1904. However, it was the British who first used radar for a military advantage, SIngapore Lion health as they built a series of radar stations along the English coast in 1938 to detect approaching aircraft. Homing pigeons crucial to military communications: British, American, Canadian, and German forces all used homing pigeons, such as this one, to carry essential war-front messages.
The Axis powers had also dabbled with radar technology in the 1930s, but they were slow to recognize its military potential, and never caught up with the Anglo-American technological edge. In simple terms, radar (radio detecting and ranging) utilizes transmitters to bounce radio waves off distant objects, revealing the objects’ location, speed, and distance. During the war, combatants used radar to detect ships and planes far beyond the range of the human eye. After giving the wreck’s coordinates, Schultze added, “Save the crew, if you please.” Fast, agile, and far-ranging, the U-48 was commissioned on April 22, 1939, and proved herself the most successful German U-boat of the war, sinking more than 50 ships and damaging others during its 12 patrols. And what happens to the men sunk along with their ships? In what will become known as the “100th Regiment Offensive,” Chinese Communists stage guerrilla raids against Japanese forces. Nazis ghettoize Warsaw’s Jews: Polish and Jewish laborers contribute to the construction of a 10-foot-high wall that will enclose the Jewish ghetto of Warsaw. December 23: Jacques Bonsergent becomes the first French citizen executed by the Nazis in Paris, following an altercation with a German officer. October 23: Francisco Franco, Spain’s Fascist leader, is unmoved by a nine-hour meeting with Adolf Hitler, and refuses to ally Spain with the Axis.
October 7: With Ion Antonescu’s assent in Romania, Nazi Germany occupies that country on the pretext of protecting its oil fields from British saboteurs. November 9: Nazi Germany begins the process of expelling some 180,000 French citizens from Alsace-Lorraine, the partially ethnically German region in southern France. November 14: Much of the British city of Coventry, including its stunning medieval cathedral, is destroyed in a Luftwaffe raid in which 449 bombers attack the region. November 8: Adolf Hitler’s annual observance of his 1923 coup attempt is interrupted by an RAF air raid on Munich. Soviet Premier Vyacheslav Molotov, in the German capital in November 1940, was told that Britain had lost the war. These and other World War II events are detailed on the World War II timeline below. Learn about this and other World War II events from October 1940 on the next page. Go to the next page for a World War II timeline detailing important events from November and December 1940, including the completion of plans for Operation Barbarossa, Adolf Hitler’s scheme to invade the Soviet Union. This and other World War II events from November and December of 1940 are summarized in the World War II timeline below.
November 11: In the first successful attack by carrier-based warplanes, a flight of 20 RAF biplanes bombs Taranto, Italy, destroying or damaging half the Italian fleet. November 20: Hungary signs the Tripartite Pact, joining Germany, Italy, and Japan in the Axis. November 5: The tremendously popular President Franklin Roosevelt is elected to a third term, a break from the presidency’s traditional, though not mandated, two-term limit. December 1940 saw Nazi Germany firebomb London and President Franklin Roosevelt officially abandon the United States’ isolationist stance. December 27: The Luftwaffe begins its firebombing of London. In December 1940 the Luftwaffe began firebombing London. Known as the Chain Home, this system subsequently played a crucial role in the victory over the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain. Irish Prime Minister Eamon de Valera denies Britain the use of Irish naval bases. Life expectancy at birth is two to three years longer than in Britain or the United States.